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The truth behind Puskás Akadémia FC - How Hungarian PM Viktor Orbán stole a legend, built a stadium in his backyard and guided his team to Europe

The 2019/2020 season of the Hungary’s National Football League (NB1) – being one of the first leagues to restart play - came to an end on 27 June. If a casual observer (for whatever reason) decides to check out the final standings, he would be not surprised at the first two positions: record-champion Ferencváros defended their title, while regional powerhouse Fehérvár (Videoton) came in second. However, the third place team, Puskás Akadémia FC might seem unusual and one could think that there is a story behind that. Is there a team named after Ferenc Puskás? Did some academy youths make an incredible run for the Europa League qualification? Well, the observer is right, there is a story behind all this, but it’s absolutely not a fun story. It’s a story about how one powerful man’s obsession with football stole a legend, misused state funds and killed the spirit of Hungarian football. (Warning: this is a long story, feel free to scroll down for a tl;dr. Also, I strongly advise checking out the links, those images are worth seeing).
Naturally, political influence in football has been present ever since the dawn of the sport and we know of numerous state leaders who felt confident enough to use their influence to ensure the successful development of their favored clubs – Caucescu’s FC Olt Scornicesti and Erdogan’s Basaksehir are well-known examples of such attempts. However, I fear that very few of the readers are aware of the fact that Puskás Akadémia FC is nothing but Hungarian PM Viktor Orbán’s grandiose project for establishing his hometown’s club as one of the country’s top teams. Considering that Orbán managed to achieve this goal using state funds in an EU member democracy in the 2000s, one might even say that it might be one of the most impressive attempts of cheating your way through Football Manager in real life. Now that Puskás Akadémia FC escaped the desolate football scene of Hungary and is getting ready for the European takeover, I feel that it’s high time to tell its true story.

Part 1: Part time striker, part time PM

Our story begins in 1999 when the 36-year-old striker Viktor Orbán (recently elected as the country’s Prime Minister) was signed by the sixth-tier side of Felcsút FC residing in rural Fejér County. It might sound surprising that an active politician would consider such a side job, but given that Orbán has been playing competitive low-level football throughout his whole life and has always been known as a keen football enthusiast, people seemed to be okay with his choice for a hobby. Orbán spent most of his childhood in the village of Felcsút (population: 1,800), so it seemed only natural that he would join the team after one of his old-time acquaintances became team president there.
Orbán’s arrival to the club seemed to work like a charm as Felcsút FC immediately earned a promotion to the fifth league. The Prime Minister’s busy program did not allow him to attend every training session and game but Orbán did make an effort to contribute as much as possible on the field – there is a report of a government meeting being postponed as Orbán was unavailable due to attending Felcsút FC’s spring training camp. The 2001/2002 season brought another breakthrough for the side as Felcsút was promoted to the national level of the football pyramid after being crowned the champion of Fejér County. Sadly enough for Orbán, he suffered a defeat on another pitch – his party lost the 2002 election and Orbán was forced to move to an opposition role.
No matter what happened on the political playing field, Orbán would not abandon his club. Just before the 2002 elections, Felcsút was surprisingly appointed as one of the regional youth development centers by the Hungarian FA. Orbán continued contributing on the field as well (he had more spare time after all) but his off-the-field efforts provided much more value for the team as he used his political influence to convince right-wing businessmen that they should definitely get sponsorship deals done with the fourth-division village team.
Club management was able to transform the influx of funds into on-field success: Felcsút FC was promoted to the third division in 2004 and achieved promotion to the second division in 2005. Although these new horizons required a skill level that an aging ex-PM is not likely to possess, Orbán regularly played as a late game sub and even appeared in cup games against actual professional opponents. The now-42-year old Orbán did not want to face the challenge of the second division, so he retired in 2005 – but this did not stop him from temping as an assistant coach when the head coach was sacked in the middle of the 2005-2006 season.
Success on the playing field did not translate to political success: Orbán lost the elections once again in 2006. However, this was only a temporary loss: the ruling party committed blunder after blunder and by early 2007 it became absolutely obvious that Orbán would be able return to power in 2010. Now confident in his political future, Orbán opted for the acceleration of football development in Felcsút – by late 2007 he took over the presidency of the club to take matters in his own hands. Sponsors seeking to gain favor with the soon-to-be PM were swarming Felcsút FC, so the club was able to stand very strong in an era where financial stability was a very rare sight in the Hungarian football scene, accumulating three medals (but no promotion) between 2007 and 2009.
On the other hand, Orbán realized the value of youth development as well, and started a local foundation for this purpose back in 2004 that gathered funds for the establishment a boarding school-like football academy. The academy opened its doors in September 2006 (only the second of such institutions in the country) and Orbán immediately took upon the challenge of finding an appropriate name for the academy.
He went on to visit the now very sick Ferenc Puskás in the hospital to discuss using his name, but as Puskás’ medical situation was deteriorating rapidly, communication attempts were futile. Luckily enough Puskás’ wife (and soon to be widow) was able to act on his incapable husband’s behalf and approved the naming deal in a contract. According to the statement, naming rights were granted without compensation, as “Puskás would have certainly loved what’s happening down in Felcsút”. However, there was much more to the contract: Puskás’ trademark was handed to a sports journalist friend of Orbán (György Szöllősi, also acting communications director of the academy) who promised a hefty annual return for the family (and also a 45% share of the revenue for himself). Ferenc Puskás eventually died on 17 November 2006 and on 26 November 2006 the football academy was named after him: Puskás Academy was born.
Orbán shared his vision of the whole organization after the opening ceremony: “It’s unreasonable to think that Felcsút should have a team in the top division. We should not flatter ourselves, our players and our supporters with this dream. Our long term ambition is the creation of a stable second division team that excels in youth development and provides opportunity for the talents of the future.” Let’s leave that there.

Part 2: No stadium left behind

Orbán became PM once again in April 2010 after a landslide victory that pretty much granted him unlimited power. He chased lots of political agendas but one of his policies was rock solid: he would revive sports (and especially football) that was left to bleed out by the previous governments. The football situation in 2010 was quite dire: while the national team has actually made some progress in the recent years and has reached the 42nd position in the world rankings, football infrastructure was in a catastrophic state. Teams were playing in rusty stadiums built in the communist era, club finances were a mess, youth teams couldn’t find training grounds and the league was plagued by violent fan groups and lackluster attendance figures (3100 average spectators per game in the 2009/2010 season).
Orbán – aided by the FA backed by business actors very interested in making him happy – saw the future in the total rebuild of the football infrastructure. Vast amounts of state development funds were invested into the football construction industry that warmly welcomed corruption, cost escalation and shady procurement deals. In the end, money triumphed: over the last decade, new stadiums sprung out from nothing all over the country, dozens of new academies opened and pitches for youth development appeared on practically every corner. The final piece of the stadium renovation program was the completion of the new national stadium, Puskás Aréna in 2019 (estimated cost: 575 million EUR). Orbán commemorated this historic moment with a celebratory video on his social media that features a majestic shot of Orbán modestly kicking a CGI ball from his office to the new stadium.
Obviously, Orbán understood that infrastructure alone won’t suffice. He believed in the idea that successful clubs are the cornerstone of a strong national side as these clubs would compete in a high quality national league (and in international tournaments) that would require a constant influx of youth players developed by the clubs themselves. However, Orbán was not really keen on sharing the state’s infinite wealth with private club owners who failed to invest in their clubs between 2002 and 2010. The club ownership takeover was not that challenging as previous owners were usually happy to cut their losses, and soon enough most clubs came under Orbán’s influence. Some clubs were integrated deep into Orbán’s reach (Ferencváros and MTK Budapest club presidents are high ranking officials of Orbán’s party) while in other cases, indirect control was deemed sufficient (Diósgyőri VTK was purchased by a businessman as an attempt to display loyalty to Orbán).
Pouring taxpayer money into infrastructure (stadium) projects is relatively easy: after all, we are basically talking about overpriced government construction projects, there’s nothing new there. On the other hand, allocating funds to clubs that should be operating on a competitive market is certainly a tougher nut to crack. The obvious solutions were implemented: the state media massively overpaid for broadcasting rights and the national sports betting agency also pays a hefty sum to the FA, allowing for a redistribution of considerable amounts. However, given that the income side of Hungarian clubs was basically non-existent (match day income is negligible, the failed youth development system does not sell players), an even more radical solution was desperately needed. Also, there was definite interest in the development of a tool that would allow for differentiation between clubs (as in the few remaining non-government affiliated clubs should not receive extra money).
The solution came in 2011: the so-called TAO (“társasági adó” = corporate tax) system was introduced, granting significant tax deductions for companies if they offered a portion of their profits to sports clubs – however, in theory, funds acquired through TAO can be only used for youth development and infrastructure purposes. Soon enough, it became apparent that state authorities were not exactly interested in the enforcement of these restrictions, so some very basic creative accounting measures enabled clubs to use this income for anything they wanted to. Companies were naturally keen on cutting their tax burdens and scoring goodwill with the government, so TAO money immediately skyrocketed. Opportunistic party strongmen used their influence to convince local business groups to invest in the local clubs, enabling for the meteoric rise of multiple unknown provincial teams (Mezőkövesd [pop: 16,000], Kisvárda [pop: 16,000], Balmazújváros [pop: 17,000]) into the first division.
Although it’s not the main subject of this piece, I feel inclined to show you the actual results of Orbán’s grandiose football reform. While we do have our beautiful stadiums, we don’t exactly get them filled – league attendance has stagnated around 3000 spectators per game throughout the whole decade. We couldn’t really move forward with our national team either: Hungary lost 10 positions in the FIFA World Rankings throughout Orbán’s ten years. On the other hand, the level of league has somewhat improved – Videoton and Ferencváros reached the Europa League group stage in 2019 and 2020, respectively. Too bad that the Instat-based top team of 2019/2020 Hungarian league consists of 10 foreigners and only 1 Hungarian: the goalkeeper.

Part 3: Small place, big game!

As seen in the previous chapter, Orbán did have a strong interest in the improvement of the football situation Hungary, but we shouldn’t forget that his deepest interest and true loyalty laid in the wellbeing of Felcsút and its academy. Now that Orbán had limitless means to see to the advancement of his beloved club, he got to work immediately. Orbán handed over formal club management duties to his friend / protégé / middleman / businessman Lőrinc Mészáros in 2010, but no questions would ever arise of who is actually calling the shots.
First of all, no club can exist without a proper stadium. Although in 2011 Orbán explicitly stated that “Felcsút does not need a stadium as stadiums belong to cities”, no one was really surprised in 2012 when the construction of the Felcsút stadium was announced. Orbán was generous enough to donate the lands just in front of his summer home in the village for the project, locating the entrance a mere ten meters away from his residence. Construction works for the stunningly aesthetic 3,800-seater arena (in a village of 1,800 people) started in April 2012 and were completed in April 2014, making Felcsút’s arena the second new stadium of Orbán’s gigantic stadium revival program.
The estimated budget of the construction was 120 million EUR (31,500 EUR / seat) was financed by the Puskás Academy who explicitly stated that they did not use government funds for the project. Technically, this statement is absolutely true as the construction was financed through the TAO money offered by the numerous companies looking for tax deduction and Orbán’s goodwill. However, technically, this means that the country’s budget was decreased by 120 million EUR unrealized tax revenue. Naturally, the gargantuan football stadium looks ridiculously out of place in the small village, but there’s really no other way to ensure that your favorite team’s stadium is within 20 seconds of walking distance from your home.
Obviously, a proper club should also have some glorious history. Felcsút was seriously lagging behind on this matter as though Felcsút FC was founded in 1931, it spent its pre-Orbán history in the uninspiring world of the 5th-7th leagues of the country. Luckily enough, Orbán had already secured Puskás’ naming rights and they were not afraid to use it, so Felcsút FC was renamed to Puskás Academy FC in 2009. The stadium name was a little bit problematic as the Hungarian national stadium in Budapest had sadly had the dibs on Puskás’ name, so they had to settle with Puskás’ Spanish nickname, resulting in the inauguration of the Pancho Arena. But why stop here? Orbán’s sports media strongman György Szöllősi acted upon the contract with Puskás’ widow and transferred all Puskás’ personal memorabilia (medals, jerseys, correspondence) to the most suitable place of all: a remote village in which Puskás never even set foot in.
While the off-field issues were getting resolved, Orbán’s attention shifted to another important area: the actual game of football. Although academy players started to graduate from 2008 on, it very soon became painfully obvious that the academy program couldn’t really maintain even a second division side for now. In 2009, Orbán reached an agreement with nearby Videoton’s owner that effectively transformed Felcsút FC into Videoton’s second team under the name of Videoton – Puskás Akadémia FC. The mutually beneficent agreement would allow Videoton to give valuable playing time to squad players while it could also serve as a skipping step for Puskás Academy’s fresh graduates to a first league team. The collaboration resulted in two mid-table finishes and a bronze medal in the second division in the following three seasons that wasn’t really impressive compared to Felcsút FC’s standalone seasons.
It seemed that the mixture of reserve Videoton players and academy youth was simply not enough for promotion, and although Orbán had assured the public multiple times that his Felcsút project was not aiming for the top flight, very telling changes arose after the 2011/2012 season. Felcsút terminated the Videoton cooperation deal and used the rapidly accumulating TAO funds to recruit experienced players for the now independently operating Puskás Academy FC (PAFC). The new directive worked almost too well: PAFC won its division with a 10 point lead in its first standalone year which meant that they would have to appear in the first league prior to the completion of their brand-new Pancho Arena. Too bad that this glorious result had almost nothing to do with the academy - only two players were academy graduates of the side’s regular starting XI.
Orbán did not let himself bothered with the ridiculousness of an academy team with virtually no academy players being promoted to the first division as he stated that “a marathon runner shouldn’t need to explain why the other runners were much slower than him”. Orbán also displayed a rare burst of modesty as he added that “his team’s right place is not in the first league, and they will soon be overtaken by other, better sides”.
The promotion of PAFC to the first division made a lot of people very angry and been widely regarded as a bad move. Supporter groups were united in hatred all along the league and not surprisingly, away fans almost always outnumbered the home side at PAFC’s temporary home at Videoton’s Sóstói Stadium (demolished and rebuilt in its full glory since then). One of the teams, however, possessed an extraordinary degree of anger against PAFC: supporters of Budapest Honvéd – the only Hungarian team in which Ferenc Puskás played – felt especially awkward about the transfer of their club legend’s heritage to Felcsút. Tensions spiked at the PAFC – Honvéd game when home security forced Honvéd supporters to remove the “Puskás” part of their traditional “Puskás – Kispest – Hungary” banner – the team answered the insult with style as they secured a 4-0 victory supported by fans chanting “you can’t buy legends”.
Despite Orbán’s prognosis, other better sides did not rush to overtake his team, so PAFC, now residing in their brand new Pancho Arena, came through with a 14th and a 10th place in their first two seasons. Naturally, conspiracy theories began to formulate, speculating that government-friendly owners would certainly not be motivated to give their best against PAFC. However, as the league size was reduced to 12 for the 2015/2016 season, PAFC found themselves in a dire situation just before the final round: they needed a win and needed rival Vasas to lose against MTK in order to avoid relegation. PAFC’s draw seemed to be unlucky as they faced their arch-enemy Honvéd at home, but Honvéd displayed an absolute lackluster effort – fueling conspiracy theories – and lost the fixture 2 to 1 against a home side featuring four academy players. Vasas, however, did not disappoint, their 2-0 victory resulted in PAFC’s elimination and a very relaxed sigh all over the football community.
PAFC’s relegation seemed to be in accordance with Orbán’s 2013 statement, so public opinion supposed for a while that Orbán’s project came to a halting point and the Academy would go on to actually field academy players in the second division (especially as rostering foreign players was prohibited in the lower leagues). However, if you have read through this point, you know better than to expect Orbán to retreat – obviously, PAFC came back with a bang. With a ballsy move, PAFC didn’t even sell their foreign players, they just loaned them across the league, promising them that they would be able to return next year to the newly promoted team. The promise was kept as PAFC went into another shopping spree of experienced players (easily convincing lots of them to choose the second division instead of the first) and easily won the second league.
Orbán – now aware of his negligence – opted for the doubling the team’s budget, making PAFC the third most well-founded club in the whole country (only coming short to his friend’s Videoton and his party minion’s Ferencváros). With an actual yearly influx from TAO money in the ballpark of 30-40 million EUR, PAFC management had to really work wonders in creative accounting in order to make their money look somewhat legitimate. The books were now full of ridiculous items like:
  • Construction of a new tea kitchen for youth players for 650,000 EUR
  • Construction of a new “sports and conference center” for 40 million EUR
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Naturally, in the country of no consequences, absolutely nothing happened: PAFC went on with its spending and signed 35 foreigners between 2017 and 2020. They did so because they could not hope to field a winning team in the first league consisting of academy players, despite the fact that Puskás Academy has been literally drowning in money since 2007. This seems to somewhat contradict Orbán’s 2013 promise, stating that “Puskás Academy will graduate two or three players to major European leagues each year”. To be fair, there have been players who managed to emerge to Europe (well, exactly two of them: Roland Sallai plays at Freiburg, László Kleinheisler played at Werder Bremen) but most academy graduates don’t even have the slightest the chance to make their own academy’s pro team as it’s full of foreigners and more experienced players drawn for other teams’ programs.
Despite their unlimited funding, PAFC could not put up a top-tier performance in their first two years back in the first division, finishing 6th and 7th in the 12-team league. Many speculated that the lack of support, motivation and even a clear team mission did not allow for chemistry to develop within the multinational and multi-generational locker room. Consistency was also a rare sight on the coaching side: club management was absolutely impatient with coaches who were very easily released after a single bad spell and there were talks of on-field micromanagement request coming from as high as Orbán.
Even so, their breakthrough came dangerously close in 2018 as PAFC performed consistently well in the cup fixtures and managed to reach the final. Their opponent, Újpest played an incredibly fierce game and after a 2-2 draw, they managed to defeat PAFC in the shootout. Football fans sighed in relief throughout the country as ecstatic Újpest supporters verbally teased a visibly upset Orbán in his VIP lounge about his loss.
Obviously, we could only delay the inevitable. While this year’s PAFC side seemed to be more consistent than its predecessors, it seemed that they won’t be able to get close to the podium - they were far behind the obvious league winner duo of Ferencváros and Videoton and were trailing third-place Mezőkövesd 6 points just before the pandemic break. However, both Mezőkövesd and PAFC’s close rivals DVTK and Honvéd fall flat after the restart while PAFC was able to maintain its good form due to its quality roster depth. PAFC overtook Mezőkövesd after the second-to-last round as Mezőkövesd lost to the later relegated Debrecen side. (Mezőkövesd coach Attila Kuttor was fined harshly because of his post-game comments on how the FA wants PAFC to finish third.)
PAFC faced Honvéd in the last round once again, and as Honvéd came up with its usual lackluster effort, PAFC secured an effortless win, confidently claiming the third place. PAFC celebrated their success in a nearly empty stadium, however neither Orbán, nor Mészáros (club owner, Orbán’s protégé, now 4th richest man of Hungary) seemed to worry about that. While Orbán high-fived with his peers in the VIP lounge, Mészáros was given the opportunity to award the bronze medals (and for some reason, a trophy) to the players dressed up in the incredibly cringe worthy T-shirts that say “Small place, big game!”. Big game, indeed: in the 2019/2020 season, foreign players’ share of the teams playing time was 43.6% while academy graduates contributed only 17.9%.
On Sunday evening, less than 24 hours after PAFC’s glorious success, György Szöllősi, now editor-in-chief of Hungary’s only sports newspaper (purchased by Orbán’s affiliates a few years back) published an editorial on the site, stating that “the soccer rebuild in Felcsút became the motor and symbol of the revitalization of sport throughout the whole country”. Well, Szöllősi is exactly right: Felcsút did became a symbol, but a symbol of something entirely different. Felcsút became a symbol of corruption, inefficiency, lies and the colossal waste of money. But, hey, at least we know now: you only need to spend 200 million EUR (total budget of PAFC and its academy in the 2011-2020 period) if you want to have a Europa League team in your backyard. Good to know!

Epilogue: What's in the future?

As there is no foreseeable chance for political change to happen Hungary (Orbán effortlessly secured qualified majority in 2014 and 2018, and is projected to do so in 2022 as well), PAFC’s future seems to be as bright as it gets. Although consensus opinion now seems to assume that Orbán does not intend to interfere with the Ferencváros – Videoton hegemony, we can never be really sure about the exact limits of his greed. One could also argue that entering the European theater serves as a prime opportunity for making splashy transfers who could be the cornerstones of a side challenging the league title.
However, as all political systems are deemed to fall, eventually Orbán’s regime will come apart. Whoever will take upon the helm after Orbán, they will certainly begin with cutting back on the one item on Orbán’s agenda that never had popular support: limitless football spending. Puskás Academy, having next to zero market revenue, will not be able to survive without the state’s life support, so the club will fold very shortly. The abandoned, rotting stadium in Felcsút will serve as a memento of a powerful man who could not understand the true spirit of football.
But let’s get back to present day, as we have more pressing issues coming up soon: PAFC will play their first European match in the First qualifying round of the Europa League on 27 August. We don’t have a date for the draw yet, but soon enough, a team unaware of the whole situation will be selected to face the beast. I hope that maybe one of their players does some research and maybe reads this very article for inspiration. I hope that the supporters of this club get in touch with Honvéd fans who would be eager to provide them with some tips on appropriate chants. I hope that other teams gets drawn as the home team so Orbán wouldn’t get the pleasure of walking to his stadium for an international match. But most importantly, I very much hope that this team obliterates PAFC and wipes them off the face of the earth. 5-0 will suffice, thank you.
And if this team fails to do that, we don’t have to worry yet. Due to our shitty league coefficient, PAFC would need to win four fixtures in a row. And that – if there’s any justice in this world – is a thing that can’t, that won’t happen. Ball don’t lie – if I may say.
TL,DR
Hungarian PM Viktor Orbán redirected some 200 million EUR of taxpayer money over 10 years to fuel his ambition of raising a competitive football team in his hometown of 1,800 people. He built a 3,800-seater stadium in his backyard, expropriated football legend Ferenc Puskás’ trademarks and heritage and built up a football league where almost all clubs are owned by his trustees. His team, Puskás Akadémia FC was originally intended to be a development ground for youth players graduating from Orbán’s football academy, but eventually the team became more and more result-orianted. Finally, a roster full of foreign and non-academy players came through and finished third in the league, releasing this abomination of a team to the European football theatre. Please, knock them out asap!
submitted by pogacsa_is_life to soccer

CMV: The pay-gap in Women's National Football is fair

(Unless specifically noted, this post concerns the state of Women's football in the US and Europe)
Obligatory statement of my general views on the broader social issue at play:
  • Women have historically faced, and continue to face, unfair labor practices.
  • There exists a general pay gap for equal work rendered in most industries, though it is not nearly as large of a gap (nor simple to calculate) as the often-quoted "$0.72 per $1.00 earned by a man"
  • I enjoy Women's football and believe it has proven value in the media/entertainment/cultural landscape.
  • I am not persuaded by the argument "men should be paid more for X sport because the worst men's team would still demolish the best women's team."


Why I hold this view:

  • Men's and Women's tournaments in the same sport are NOT "Equal Work." The LA Times compared sports teams to assembly line workers who, unarguably, deserve the same pay whether they put together a low-selling commuter car or a blockbuster high-end luxury sedan. But athletes aren't skilled workers, they are performers, and their work is to entertain a specific audience. The audience IS the work in this equation! Both Beyonce and Justin Bieber perform live music, but they are not doing equal work even though significant portions of their audience may overlap.

  • In the sports industry, revenue is generated not by the volume of goals scored, but by the volume of people willing to pay to watch it happen and buy products branded to their teams and heroes.

  • The men's World Cup in Russia generated over $6 billion in revenue, with the participating teams sharing $400 million, less than 7% of revenue. Meanwhile, the Women's World Cup is expected to earn $131 million for the full four-year cycle 2019-22 and dole out $30 million to the participating teams... just shy of 23% of revenue. Factoring in the WWC's total team roster at 24 v.s. the MWC's roster of 32, the per-team-per-player revenue share is substantially higher for the Women's teams.

  • Claims that the Women's team in the US brings in more money than the Men's team is cherry-picked data. This is true for the past few years, but over the long term, the more established men’s game brings in consistently higher game revenue year over year.

  • Revenue sharing does not scale linearly; a fixed percent of revenue for both Men's and Women's tournaments is thus an unfair risk to the governing corporate body (it pains me to say this -- I hate FIFA just as much as everybody). In other words, committing 10% of $100 million in expected revenue is a much greater financial liability than committing 10% of $1 Billion.

  • Molly Levinson, the spokesperson for the women’s national team said, regarding their lawsuit, “These athletes generate more revenue and garner higher TV ratings but get paid less simply because they are women.” The data disagree. While the women’s team broke viewing records in the US during the WWC, ratings for men’s games have been more than double those for women’s games, on average, since 2012, according to Nielsen calculations. Excluding World Cup games, the men’s team’s ratings are almost four times as high.

  • The US Soccer Federation is genuinely good at rewarding top talent regardless of gender. According to figures provided by U.S. Soccer, since 2008 it has paid 12 players at least $1 million. Six of those players were men, and six were women. The best-paid woman made about $1.2 million from 2008 to 2015, while the top man made $1.4 million in the same period. Some women in the top 10 even made more than their male counterparts over those years.

  • To qualify for the Women’s World Cup, the United States women’s team plays five games in a single two-week tournament. The men’s qualifying road is a two-year, 16-game slog across North and Central America and the Caribbean. U.S. Soccer argues that the roster bonuses for successful qualification — $15,000 for the women in 2015, $55,000 for the men in 2014 — reflect that.

  • A wage gap is seen near the bottom of the most paid list when separated by gender. The No. 25 highest paid female player made just under $341,000, and the corresponding male player took in $580,000. At No. 50, the male player made 10 times as much as his female counterpart. This is due to the fact that the Men's team plays far more many games per year and are paid by appearance as they earn most of their income from their lucrative club deals.

  • To account for the lack of a profitable Women's professional league in the US (all attempts to establish one have failed thus far), the USSF struck a deal with the women's players union to pay a fixed base salary to each player, regardless of appearances. A comparable "pay for play" structure that is offered to the Men's team would be financially devastating and unfair to the Women's team talent roster. The Men's system results in higher average pay per player, but this is a fair concession to the male players who receive nothing if they are not called to camp.

  • The lion's share of a star athlete's revenue comes from endorsement deals with private companies. NIKE will pay an athlete pari paso to what it thinks it can earn from increased sales. If the pay given to female athletes in these deals is unfair and/or discriminatory based on sex, we would need to see the value generated by such deals against what similar male and female athletes were paid. AFAIK, this data is not available. Further, endorsement deals are entirely based on negotiation -- what is "fair or unfair" is subjective to each individual deal and the parties involved.

  • There is good reason to believe that FIFA under-markets, under-supports, and under-invests in the Women's World Cup. In their lawsuit, the US Women's team refers to this as a "manufactured revenue depression", but FIFA's failure to fully capitalize on the growing popularity of the Women's World Cup does not mean players are being paid unfairly. It is not unfair to not pay players a share in revenue that doesn't exist because of FIFA's incompetence.

  • FIFA has generally been good at increasing compensation to female players as the popularity (and revenue) of the WWC grows. Last year, FIFA doubled the prize money for this summer’s Women’s World Cup, to $30 million, and has now pledged to double it again in time for the next edition in 2023.

  • The USWNT's contract with USSF is up for renewal, and they will do everything they can to further the rallying cry of "equal pay for equal work!" to achieve its best possible negotiating position. I do not think there is anything wrong with this, other than they are rallying behind what I view as a false claim that the "pay gap" is not fair.

So, let's discuss! I would very much like to change my view on this as I generally don't like to agree with angry voices on the conservative right, but my feelings don't matter. I want to know if the "wage gap" in Women's football is fair or not. My view is that it is fair, and is on track to grow be even more favorable to the female players with the increasing popularity of the WWC, but my mind is open!

EDIT: word choice (see strike through)

Sources:
https://www.jjay.cuny.edu/sites/default/files/contentgroups/sasp/poster_gallery/poster14.pdf
https://www.forbes.com/sites/mikeozanian/2019/03/07/world-cup-soccer-pay-disparity-between-men-and-women-is-justified/#59a941946da4
https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/womens-2019-soccer-world-cup-smashes-global-ratings-records-1221957
https://www.cnbc.com/2019/07/08/womens-world-cup-draws-better-us-ratings-than-last-years-mens-final.html
https://nypost.com/2019/07/08/us-womens-soccer-team-equal-pay-gripe-is-less-than-it-seems/
https://thefederalist.com/2019/07/08/yes-soccer-pay-gap-women-make-men/
https://www.latimes.com/opinion/editorials/la-ed-womens-soccer-pay-disparity-20190313-story.html
https://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/22/sports/socceusmnt-uswnt-soccer-equal-pay.html?action=click&module=inline&pgtype=Article®ion=Footer
https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/08/sports/socceworld-cup-equal-pay.html
https://www.pbs.org/newshounation/u-s-womens-soccer-won-4-world-cups-now-can-they-score-equal-pay
https://www.cbc.ca/radio/day6/episode-449-protecting-hong-kong-assets-women-s-world-cup-seinfeld-set-designer-gaming-fake-news-and-more-1.5200243/as-women-s-soccer-teams-around-the-world-fight-for-equal-pay-they-re-gaining-more-fans-1.5200259
https://www.bostonglobe.com/business/2019/07/08/get-right-side-history-soccer-equal-pay-for-women-team-now/K2I0Mim6t8Q7dlZWkUwBeP/story.html
https://www.natlawreview.com/article/gender-pay-gap-and-women-s-world-cup
https://www.theguardian.com/football/ng-interactive/2019/jun/28/revealed-the-731003-gender-pay-gap-in-us-world-cup-bonuses


UPDATE (7/9/19) -- Wow! This blew up... there is a lot of great discussion here, so thank you all! I fully intend to keep responding, thinking, and doing additional research (today I would like to dig around USSF data and see if I can get a copy of the USWNT lawsuit to see their arguments.) I will try to keep up as fast as possible, so please forgive me if it takes a while to respond to every comment. I also wish to work to pinpoint as many specific circumstances as possible that would CMV. A big open question I have right now that may lead to some deltas is: "Why aren't players, male or female, commonly paid XX% of revenue generated by a team or league?"

UPDATE (7/10/19) -- still working to read + reply to every substantive comment + take care of my day job! :) Aslo, I got invited to the CMV podcast! Going to speak with the mods now and accept...

UPDATE (7/14/19) --
Ok, folks! We have deltas to award, changed and unchanged views to declare, and a helluva lot more understanding of the issue to share and discuss. I’m now ready to make a statement regarding Women’s National Football in the US. I will continue to look into Women’s Football in Europe as I do not yet have enough data nor analysis on this sector... would love for anybody who knows anything about this to chime in.
(Clarifying terminology: I use “National Football” to refer to the National Team that competes against other Nations.)

Is the pay-gap in Women’s National Football fair? As far as the US is concerned, my view currently remains unchanged. However, I also now believe that the current pay-gap is fair but unreasonable, and it is in the best interest of the USWNT’s employer (USSF) and FIFA to substantially raise wages + “quality of life” terms for female players + fiscal investment in the Women’s game.
Why I’ve come to this affirmation:
Fair compensation reflects all real and/or potential capital value added to an organization by an employee against the up-front risk the organization must commit. My analysis considers all forms of capital, including social, marketing, brand awareness, brand value, long and short term returns, etc…
  • The current CBA between USWNT and USSF went into effective on 1/1/2017, well after the USMNT meteoric rise.
  • The next CBA agreement will go into effect in 2021, and it is incumbent on the USWNT to leverage their strongest bargaining chip (public adoration, changing social attitudes regarding working women, public sympathy) as much as possible to receive the most favorable terms.
  • There is little to no risk for the USWNT to stoke public outrage and tie their claim of unfairness to the larger social issue of gender-based wage gaps.
  • It has not been demonstrated to me that the work of the Men’s and Women’s teams meet the standards outlined by the Equal Pay Act and Equal Pay Act Title VII, and thus the heuristic “equal pay for equal work” does not apply.
  • Assuming the USWNT “quality of life” job benefits are unreasonably lower than the men’s (e.g. no chartered plane travel, frequency of games not played on natural turf, etc…) it has not yet been demonstrated to me that the lack of these perks is the product of unfair labor practices nor gender based discrimination.
  • Apples to apples, a pure %-of-revenue based wage for both Men’s and Women’s teams would be on-the-surface fair, but in practice, would overwhelmingly favor USSF at the USWNT’s expense. To this end, the women’s player union has not argued for a pure %-of-revenue model, nor would their members accept one.
  • For the past 3 years, the US government office of the EEOC investigated the player’s claims of EPA/EPA Title VII violations at USSF, and did not find sufficient evidence for government intervention (note: such findings DOES NOT mean the USSF is not in violation). Further, the EEOC attempted mediation but these efforts failed.
  • Past discrimination of women in Football does not justify greater pay prima facie.
  • Lack of similar negotiating leverage enjoyed by the Mens team does not, prima facie, establish that the deal signed by the USWNT in 2017 is unfair. Similarly, it does not establish that the deal is fair. The increase in wages paid by USSF to the USWNT does however, indicate USSF acknowledges that what is fair today is not fair tomorrow, especially in the case of elite level performance. This is evidence that the current wage gap is generally fair as it rewards the players for exceptional performance.

Some deltas to award…
I’m going to award deltas to users who changed my thinking and/or prompted me to think about this view from new angles, even if my overall view didn’t change. Delta goes to damejudyclench for doing the work, providing a thought provoking comparable to consider (Tennis), and pointing me to thought regarding systematic changes that lead to better pay for the Women's teams that are not based on emotional appeal. Back to back world cups is a genuinely good idea worth considering.

I also want to award a delta to a redditor who argued that the USWNT enters into each contract negotiation with hardly any leverage, so one must be skeptical that the deal on the other end is fair... to this end, it caused me to think about what I consider to be 'fair play' and it changed my "side-view" that outcries of 'equal pay for equal work!' from the USWNT were unfair and unreasonable. I cannot find this comment because the thread has gotten so big, but I mentioned that it was brewing a delta for me!

Delta awarded to cargdad for showing me evidence and convincing argumentation that USSF unreasonably failed to invest in youth developmental academies for girls, so much so, that clubs established an unofficial Development Academy out of frustration. If it can be demonstrated that, had USSF not failed to established these programs, that revenue/capital/value generated by NWSL and/or the USWNT today would be substantially or substantively higher, then I will CMV on my OP, top-level claim.


Some Excellent New Sources I pulled, including primary source documents...
The Norwegien Model: https://www.si.com/socce2017/10/08/fifa-women-soccer-equal-pay-norway-gianni-infantino
(Uses an ‘equal pay’ model)
USSF financials:
https://www.ussoccer.com/governance/financial-information
USSF response:
https://sports.yahoo.com/us-soccer-responds-to-discrimination-lawsuit-filed-by-womens-national-team-players-170214226.html
https://apnews.com/738acdeeb4674d04984112d664f2eaa5
https://www.starsandstripesfc.com/2019/5/7/18535270/us-soccer-denies-uswnt-gender-discrimination-claims
Legal Expert on Soccer in America: https://twitter.com/turneresq
Excellent articles from Legal Experts at Sports Illustrated:
https://www.si.com/socce2019/05/08/us-soccer-response-uswnt-players-lawsuit-gender-discrimination-equal-pay
https://www.si.com/socce2019/05/07/us-soccer-uswnt-lawsuit-gender-discrimination-equal-pay-response
https://www.si.com/socce2019/03/08/uswnt-lawsuit-us-soccer-equal-pay-cba-eeoc-gender-discrimination
https://www.si.com/planet-futbol/2017/04/05/uswnt-us-soccer-women-cba-labor-talks-agreement
https://www.si.com/socce2017/10/08/fifa-women-soccer-equal-pay-norway-gianni-infantino
PDF of USWNT lawsuit filings https://equalizersoccer.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/2019-03-08_Doc-1_Complaint-Receipt-No.pdf


UPDATE (7/17/19) -- Wow! Hold_onto_yer_butts from out of now where with a stunner!! He/she linked to an informal poll of economists on this issue that just came out today. "Question A: In a case like the US women’s national soccer team where the revenues that they generate and their on-field performance both exceed those of the men’s team, there is no justification for lower pay." ...only 5% disagreed http://www.igmchicago.org/surveys/equal-pay

I'm going to reach out to a bunch of them to see if I can find out more about what brought them to that conclusion!
submitted by TonyLund to changemyview

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